Apr 19, 2018
Apr 20, 2018
Douglas KelbaughUniversity of Michigan USA
Urban Cool, Infrastructure that Combats Heat and Other Challenges
“Urban Cool” is meant to conjure up not only cooler, more comfortable cities, but the cosmopolitan, hip and trendy finesse and savoir faire of urbanites. The paper is a straightforward declaration about the essential role of good urbanism in the life-threatening and civilization-challenging war against Climate Change (CC). The “other challenges” include the dangerously high temperatures of Urban Heat Islands (UHIs) and heat waves, as well as the litany of pressing problems that cities are able to address, especially over-population. One major theme is “the environmental paradox of cities”: contrary to popular perception, urbanites consume less energy and natural resources per capita than suburbanites, thereby combatting air pollution and climate change. People who live in dense, walkable, transit-served areas tend to be physically healthier, happier, and more creative and productive. And local governments pay less per capita to build and maintain urban infrastructure than the sprawling infrastructure of suburbia or the countryside. Four design and planning strategies to reduce local heat islands are presented, as well as effective policies. Another major theme is that UHIs can be utilized as a Trojan Horse in the battle against global CC, because ways to mitigate and adapt to both challenges are essentially the same. And as a more immediate and palpable problem, the UHI more compellingly motivates people to act in the bigger, slower war against CC.
Hazem ElzarkaUniversity of Cincinnati USA
Applications of Drones in Construction and Transportation
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), also known as drones, are evolving beyond their military origin to become powerful business tools. Goldman Sachs predicts the fastest growth opportunity for drones comes from construction. They expect the construction industry to spend $11 billion on drones between now and 2020. Applications of drones in construction include progress tracking, asset inspection, contractor monitoring, construction safety, and construction quality control. In the transportation field, UAV applications include traffic monitoring, and work zone traffic control assessment and optimization. The presentation will discuss the state of the art applications of drones in construction and transportation. The speaker will discuss the sensors, platform, navigation challenges, requirements, and sensor related technologies needed for successful drone applications in construction and transportation. For example, a construction site is highly dynamic with obstacles in three dimensions. It is important to develop path planning methods to generate safe paths and use Real‐Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS or GPS‐denied navigation techniques to create accurate georeferenced imagery from the drone’s camera.
Vincenzo NaddeoUniversity of Salerno Italy
Sustainable development of smart cities: the role of the environmental technologies
Cities are first and foremost built for people and must be managed to guarantee a suitable quality of life. More than 50% of the world’s population lives in cities. By 2050, this figure will rise to nearly 75%. The big challenger is to sustainably provide and manage energy, buildings, transportation, security, health, food, water and wastes in the urban-ecosystem dimension. In today’s world, people are able to produce large amounts of valuable data, thus contributing to developing smart cities. Smart cities consist of human-made structures or environments that are, in some capacity, monitored, metered, networked and controlled. A smart, sustainable city is an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies and other means to improve quality of life, efficiency of urban operation, and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social, environmental as well as cultural aspects. The improvement of livability and sustainability are main issues of a smart city. In this context, environmental technologies are the hot solution. The development of novel technologies is strongly required to monitoring in realtime the key parameters directly on site at different parts of the urban-ecosystem. However to make the technology smart, for each environmental issue a robust algorithm for the data analyses and interpretation is necessary to make the right action/decision needs for the control of the quality of the environment. In the next future we can also image that these decision could be made by an artificial intelligence that can control all enviromental tecnologyes in the city. Design of smart cities is one of the most growing issue to be resolved for both current and next generations and environmental technologies designed at urban level will be the core. At this day, as almost every smart building, infrastructure and city is a prototype, these communities are in the early stage of development and require specific attention and expertise as we advance. This work will uncover the newest worldwide trends and developments that are driving smart city innovation for a sustainable development
Sessions:Smart Infrastructure and ConstructionLandscape ArchitectureSustainable Cities, Society and CultureLow-energy and high-performance materialsInterior DesignUrbanization, Energy Supply and Transportation ConstructionInfrastructure Asset ManagementArchitecture and Civil Engineering Construction and Engineering
Paul HamptonUniversity of Wolverhampton UK
The 4th Built Environment Industrial Revolution
The 4th Industrial Revolution (4ID) will ring in both the new and the old. It will engender innovative technologies and processes that are astonishingly new, and it will lead to the revival of institutions and ways of living that up to now have been widely seen to be archaic. We are already familiar with open source design and "digital commons". But there is something even more peculiar about the impact of 4ID because of the very strong sense of its imminence. It is not likely to be gradual. Over the last three decades, the pace of change in digital technology and the increase in its capacity and efficiency have been exponential; and the curve is likely to get steeper. Tablets that are now available for about £750 are 5000 times more powerful than the first generation. What makes the 4ID different is that it forces us to think in utopian terms here and now, and this leads to a cautious optimism. But 4ID has not yet so radically altered or challenged the way in which we organize and structure our communities and our social and professional relationships. Our ambition must be to manage 4ID in such a way as, not only to ensure we have roofs over our heads and food in our cupboards, but also to enable ourselves to re-establish the link between intellectual endeavour and manual labour, and thus come closer to achieving the sense of wholeness, purposefulness and a basic trust that every mature human being seeks.
Genell EbbiniUniversity of Minnesota USA
Redefining the Practice of Biophilic Design: Linking the Gaps
Biophilic design elements are at the forefront of the industry and are emerging as a pivotal theme in interior design. Research demonstrates measurable results in improved human health and wellbeing by connecting people to nature through biophilic design elements and patterns which require designers to develop complex problem-solving skills. As the industry adopts biophilic design, significant gaps of biophilia elements and design strategies are evident. A preliminary study indicates that incorporating the principles of biophilic design is a challenge for many practitioners and solutions do not align with biophilic principles in an effective, authentic, and holistic manner. The purpose of this body of research is the identification of gaps between education and practice. A conceptual framework model was developed as an attempt to close the gap that integrates dimensions of biophilia, linking design education and practice. The framework is to build capacities based on foundations of theories, tested educational models, and strategies for future research. The implications of this work for future research and design education are promising and provide effective tools for building critical and analytical thought processes. There is a significant body of evidence-based research existing on the topic of biophilic design, and both human and ecological health and wellbeing. Biophilic design is promising; primarily the psychosocial importance of forging connections between nature, people, and the built environment. This body of research challenges industry precedents by redefining the practice of biophilic design in creating interiors that are responsive and healthy using evidence-based design and biophilic design elements.
P. Richard PerronUniversity of Manitoba Canada
Canadian Ecological Infrastructure Strategies
The research is focused upon current and recent urban strategies being undertaken across Canada. Looking at Canadian cities, the work reveals the underlying assumptions behind the urban strategies that are being adopted (such as smart growth, sustainable community design, ecological urbanism, etc.), and illustrates how urban strategies are being realized through urban design. The work aims at demonstrating how ecological infrastructures are being used to develop urban design strategies. Urban design encompasses a wide spectrum of methods, so it is important throughout this research to illustrate the range of approaches taken across the country rather than concentrating on a single design approach or strategy. It is through cases studies of Canadian cities that we reveal the implementation of change. An urban strategy has been described as “a framework of reflection geared to regenerating towns and cities for the benefit of their inhabitants” (Francois Delarue). Urban strategies may take several forms, including the development or embellishment of public spaces, central commercial areas, recreational areas, experiments in the development of business/residential districts (such as Transit Oriented Design), the rejuvenation of neighborhoods, and many more. There is an ever-growing presence within Canadian cities to strategically implement change. The current research investigates the following questions: How are these changes being realized through urban design? How do cities of different sizes go about reinventing themselves? What is the importance of ecological infrastructure in the redevelopment of Canadian urban centers?
Norhan Magdy Mohamed BayomiMassachusetts Institute of Technology USA
Meeting Climate Goals for Major Carbon Emitters in the Middle East
Energy is a key ingredient to facilitate economic development in the Middle East. Expectations for a rapidly growing economy in the next decade will likely cause an increase in the fraction of energy consumed domestically tumbling what is available for export. Rising living standards, energy-intensive urban expansion and mounting power demands compound the energy challenge in the Middle East. After Paris Climate Agreement in 2015, countries in the Middle East have committed to curb their GHG emissions and increase the deployment of renewable technologies. As a result, energy systems have been under significant transitions driven by environmental policies and economic development. The presentation underlines the role of energy supply and power generation sector in the Middle East to meet climate goals. Emissions addressed in the talk are examined under the 450- pathway for the Middle East, developed by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to contribute to the global goal of staying below 20C. The focus is given to four countries, namely Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and the UAE, which account for around 76% of the region’s CO2 emissions. The main objective is to first, highlight current power generation strategies and assess their contribution under 450-emission scenario. Finally, live demo of an interactive web tool (MENA-CC.com) is presented that is developed and directed towards climate change challenges and rapid urbanization in Middle East and North African countries (MENA Climate Change Accelerator). The Climate Change Accelerator allows users to have open access to energy data sets, graphically conduct country-to-country comparison, examine different power scenarios and assess emissions trajectories relative to the 450-emission target.
Saad BinhowimalUniversity of Queensland Australia
Fillers’ application in high-performance concrete
Modern concrete material science proposes that varying particle size distributions from very fine powder to coarse aggregates could help particles to fill the gap and fit together in a properly proportioned mixture leading to optimal packing. This opportunity will reduce voids between particles and free up more paste to support in creating an area of improvement in concrete performance properties. An experimental investigation is conducted to explore the possibilities of reducing the use of cement in the concrete paste and enhance the use of more low-carbon-footprint materials. In this research, a scientific high-performance concrete mix design is constructed by utilising various locally available natural fillers or recycled industrialised waste in mono or multi-size fillers adding mode. Blended concrete mixtures are then examined for flowability, passing ability, segregation stability and strength under standard tests; both single and concurrent performance comparison is considered, to verify the suitability of incorporating these fillers in structural application of high-performance concrete. These performance properties and fillers comparative additions are then correlated in relation to solid particle wet packing density and liquid film thicknesses theories. The results presented in this project can facilitate improvements in stability, durability and sustainability of building structures, which may possibly, extend the design life, cut the construction cost and conserve the energy by implementing high-quality fillers as a partial replacement of cement in paste or concrete mixture.
Konstantinos Daniel TsavdaridisUniversity of Leeds UK
Structural Topology Optimisation Towards 3D Printing
Aerospace and automotive engineers routinely employ structural topology optimisation techniques and have reported significant structural performance gains as a result. Recently architects and designers have also started investigating the use of topology optimisation, for efficiency and aesthetics. Dr Tsavdaridis’ research team has exploited the use of structural topology optimisation design in various applications and will demonstrate some examples of where topology optimisation may be a useful design tool in civil/structural engineering. • A geometrically complex but efficient exoskeleton for a high-rise building and the optimal design of its architectural building envelop. • Optimisation and design of a perforated steel I-section beam, since such structural members are widely used nowadays in the vast majority of steel buildings and structures while they provide numerous of advances. • A new breed of aluminum cross-sections that have been generated through a comprehensive study of structural topology optimisation improving the cross-sectional stiffness while minimizing the weight of beams and columns. • A new conceptual design for tall slender lattice telecommunication towers and masts improving cost, static and dynamic performance as well as aesthetics, investigating the potential of using structural topology optimisation through a combination of 2D and 3D approaches with a focus on post-processing and manufacturability. Conclusions attempt to highlight the general characteristics of the optimised structural members and systems as well as the benefits of using 3D printed (additive manufacturing) in order to realize some of these results.
Amin K. AkhnoukhEast Carolina University USA
Additive Construction using 3-D Printing for Earth and Space Applications
Additive construction has been recently introduced to the construction industry in the local and international markets by the new millennium. Additive construction refers to the building of any structure/structural element through the mechanical (automated) addition of construction materials in consecutive layers to form a 3-D structure according to a predetermined architectural design. Currently, plain concrete is used in additive construction projects and poured through extrusion from robotic arms called 3-D printer. The main advantages introduced to the construction industry by additive construction include excellent quality control, labor and time savings, minimizing human errors, and increased construction site safety. However, multiple impediments exists and hinders the widespread of this technology. First, the concrete mix used in additive construction is required to be flowable enough to be extruded through the 3-D printer nozzle, yet, the concrete mix has to be of sufficient viscosity and quick setting to be ready for additional layers of the pour. This research paper presents the advantages of additive construction, the challenges that face the concrete material mix design, and constructability techniques. Examples of successful projects using 3-D printing are presented. It is estimated that additive construction market share will be multiplied during the next decade, with an increased share in military projects, low cost housing construction, and in the establishment of space habitats
David DawNorth West University South Africa
Infrastructure: a foundation for South African development vision 2030
In this study we investigate the relationship between mining infrastructure and economic growth in South Africa from 1980-2013. The importance of the study is to examine if there is both short and long run significant relationship between mining infrastructure and economic growth in South Africa. The data for mining was collected from South African Reserve Bank (SARB) covering the range from 1980-2013 of the study. Both Augmented Dickey Fully (ADF) and Philip Perron (PP) where used for stationarity tests. The study used 5% critical value to analyse the results obtained from the study. Engle granger and johansen Cointegration tests are employed in the study, also Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) were also employed in the study. In the results we obtained that there is also a causal relationship between mining infrastructure and economic growth, meaning development of mining infrastructure does promote economic growth. There is also a causal relationship between mining infrastructure and economic growth, meaning the development of mining infrastructure does not promote economic growth. In conclusion the policy makers should improve private infrastructure which will equip human capital to be more useful in contributing towards knowledge and innovation. This means South Africa government and mining industry should priorities the development of infrastructure as component that will be sufficient towards economic development.
Peter BurggräfRWTH Aachen University Germany
Enabling Sustainable Production through Urban Factories
The increase of the world’s population and the trend of urbanization create new challenges for the industrial economy, especially for the manufacturing sector and its strategic orientation of goods and services. Additionally, manufacturing companies must constantly adapt existing value-adding networks. Urban production as a form of value creation in urban areas is considered as a solution for these challenges. Characteristics of a production close to the city are lower logistics costs and a flexible work schedule for employees as well as implicitly fewer emissions through shorter distances to customers and for workforce. In this paper, the corresponding urban factory, along with its requirements towards the production system, is understood as a new factory archetype. In addition to 'Mega Factories’ (automated, large scales, rural areas) and 'Micro Factories' (mobile, small scales, connectable), it is seen as a potential factory of the future. Although research in factory planning uses many approaching levels to encounter urban production, the research landscape lacks a compatibility test as an instrument and tool for factory planning to explore scales of urban factories. In this paper, measures of cost competitiveness by cost degression as well as possibilities in production regarding information, human factors and ecologic aspects are presented and demonstrated referring to results from a project of a low-invest factory in the automotive sector.
Xinxin WangUnitec Institute of Technology New Zealand
Planning green infrastructure for a regional Auckland
Auckland is facing rapid urban growth which based on urban population increasing about one million by 2040. How this development can be made environmentally sustainable would be the key question to planners in the 21st century. Not only traditional infrastructure will be needed for the population change, but also a new green infrastructure to ensure environmental sustainability. Green infrastructure is a design strategy to link up existing green spaces, both public and private; to help ensure the environmental health of a city and its continued social-economic wellbeing. Green infrastructure also plays an ever-increasing role in shaping regional urban forms. It can act as; dividers of urban sub-centers, directors of urban growth and urban retrofitting tools. This paper discusses the development of green infrastructure along State Highway One, the economic and spatial corridor of the Auckland region. The proposed green infrastructure will not only preserve and enhance the existing environment but will also ensure the continuing connection between city and nature that Aucklanders take for granted. The authors established two sets of criteria; environmental and social, to drive the development of the infrastructure. Three case studies were developed to test the proposition, ranging in scale from the regional to the local. Research findings suggested that preserving and enhancing the green infrastructure in the greater Auckland Region could not only offer a new regional park system but also provide more land for sustainable development and enhance the quality of life for future citizens
Julie LarsenSyracuse University USA
Rhizolith Island: Prototyping a Resilient Coastal Infrastructure for Mangrove Repopulation
The design and development of Rhizolith Island investigates ways for floating, high performance concrete structures to revitalize depleting mangrove forests along vulnerable, urbanized shorelines with ongoing flooding. The project is a collaboration between architects, a concrete manufacturer, coastal engineers, the local government of Cartagena, Colombia, and local NGOs. The process combines innovative design strategies with advanced R&D concrete mixes and fabrication techniques to strengthen ecological resilience of coastal infrastructure and reinforce community appreciation of the ecologies that surround and protect them. As a new infrastructural type, the island is a barrier that protects and enables new mangroves, and the habitats they provide, to grow and thrive while creating a new public edge for visitors along the shore. The initial proof of concept of the island was exhibited in the harbor of Cartagena, Colombia and supported by the National Park Los Corales del Rosario and San Bernardo and the Cartagena Port Authority. The city is interested in ways to combat mangrove loss in littoral environments and subsequent flooding with resilient approaches that are responsive to ecological conditions while still maintaining an aesthetically enriching recreational shoreline. Rhizolith Island can float above water to ensure mangrove seedlings stay protected above continuous waves in the deep waters adjacent to the lagoon. The design of the concrete modules are made with a high-strength and lightweight concrete technology to encase the mangrove seedlings as they grow; while concrete fins below water create new ecological habitats. Eventually, mature mangroves are able to control flooding and re-establish their habitat to bring the site back to nature.
Mohammed Al SurfEffat University Saudi Arabia
From Sustainable Buildings to Sustainable Cities
Sustainable design methods have been the norm for the past two decades and the application levels vary from location to location and consider different environmental, economical and social variables. The focus for local governments is shifting from small-scale applications on building to cover whole cities. The main approach to apply the different triple bottom line variables is to retrofit existing non-sustainable conditions to be sustainable. City retrofitting approach allows the consideration of all buildings located in the same district or city as an entity. In this case the application of retrofitting measures is not limited to single buildings only but can be applied on city level by exploiting synergies and interactions between buildings and their surrounding infrastructure and environment. The creation of sustainable cities can be treated as the point where sustainable buildings and the sustainable urban planning meet. The US Green Building Council launched a new performance measuring tool called ARC where it can be a platform that measure the efficiency of a city from 5 different parameter, Energy, Water, Waste, Transportation and Human Experience. This paper will elaborate on the integrated sustainable city retrofitting design methodology and city sustainability assessment KPIs that were the base of design of the ARC platform. Furthermore, the lessons learned and the results of implementing these methodologies and KPIs on real sustainable city retrofitting case studies are going to be discussed.
Eugene KwakPratt Institute and New York Institute of Technology USA
Defining local food network and distribution system in New York Metropolitan area
From the effects of widespread monoculture to the aging population of career farmers, the agriculture industry today is facing myriad challenges. Industrialized farming, for all its virtues, has not come without collateral damage—depleting healthy soil and contributing to threats of contamination. With land becoming more and more scarce, the number of farmers in America has likewise declined, now sitting at an all‐time low. And yet, there has never been more consumer demand for what they produce. But farms today are plagued by a sheer lack of resources, capital and infrastructure required to distribute and preserve sustainable agriculture. According to American Famland Trust, the U.S. is losing farmland at a rate of 40 acres every hour; New York state alone has lost a half million acres over the last 30 years. With the average age of farmers rising and the number of young, new farmers declining at an alarming rate, the generational passing of practical, institutional knowledge and experience is at risk. More than 8 million people in and around New York City rely on local farms for their food every day. And yet, in the heart of the Hudson Valley, great farms are being threatened daily. The aim of this research is to 1) define local food network and distribution systems in New York Metropolitan area, 2) help foster the growth of young and beginning farmers in Hudson Valley region in New York, 3) develop design focused “agri” based business model to catalyze investment in agriculture, 4) connect urban demographic to the natural environment and establish environmental stewardship, and 5) raise awareness of sustainability through responsible farming.
Giovanni CascanteUniversity of Waterloo Canada
Investigation of sample size effects on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method – experimental study
Nondestructive ultrasonic evaluation (NDE) is commonly used for assessment of civil infrastructure and characterization of construction materials; because, it is an efficient technique that could save millions of dollars with respect to traditional intrusive tests. Changes in the medium conditions are inferred currently from changes in the wave velocity of a low-strain pulse travelling between two points. Velocity changes are evaluated using practically only one point of information out of thousands that are actually recorded in typical tests. Why? Because, ultrasonic sensors are not calibrated; they do not measure displacement, velocity, or acceleration. Therefore, the real input excitation and corresponding output response of the medium in NDE tests are not known. This paper is aimed at addressing these important limitations in the use of ultrasonic pulse velocity method for the dynamic characterization of construction materials. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) method is a very popular technique used in NDE. Major benefit of the method is its simplicity. UPV uses the concept of measuring time of a first arrival of ultrasonic wave from one side of the specimen to another. Moreover, UPV is an ASTM standard test method for concrete specimens. The standard specifies the applications of UPV as: assessment of relative quality of concrete, presence of voids imperfections (i.e. voids, cracks, and the effectiveness of its repairs). UPV can be also applied to monitoring changes in the condition of specimen. In spite of an easiness of the method obtained results highly depend on the transducers used, coupling quality, and specimen dimensions. The authors briefly comment on the first two factors and focus on the latter. The results for UPV tests of 6 concrete specimens of different heights and diameters are presented. The specimens are tested with 50 kHz and 1 MHz excitation transducers and the state-of-the-art laser vibrometer (response measurements). The authors discuss the influence of specimens’ dimensions on the measured pulse velocities. Practical recommendations for the minimal dimensions of the test object in order to minimize the error in UPV tests are proposed.
Ali Ali Hassen ShashKing Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals Saudi Arabia
Risk Management in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia
Risk management is a proactive and responsive practice that works to deliver a project within allocated the time, cost, and quality. This paper reveals, through a questionnaire survey, the techniques and practices that construction companies in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia follow to eliminate or mitigate risks in construction projects. The majority of contractors in Saudi Arabia have risk management systems embedded within their organizations. Managers, cost estimators, planners, and tender specialists, e.g., senior vice president of estimation, director of cost and planning and tendering team are responsible for risk management processes. Very few organizations have a separate risk management department. The risk management process typically entails the risk identification, risk analysis, risk prevention, and control. The contractors use effective and suitable techniques to analyze, prevent, and mitigate risks.
A. B. M. Saiful IslamImam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University Saudi Arabia
Offshore floating wind turbine as deep water energy exploration structure
The floating offshore wind turbines are expected to become more popular structure because of the high quality of offshore wind resources and the environmental benefits. Excessive use of fossil fuels has caused climate change in the last few decades and threatened human security and development. Nowadays, serious energy crisis and environmental pollution have forced people and governments throughout the world to look for sustainable alternative sources of energy. As a result, wind power as a type of abundant, clean, renewable energy sources has received considerable attention worldwide and its development is growing at an unprecedented rate in recent years. The onshore wind farm development is usually restricted by land availability. Problems such as wind turbine noise and their visual impact on the natural environment are the main reasons for people to refuse to accept the building of onshore wind turbines close to residential areas. Besides, wind over the water is generally stronger, more consistent and much smoother than wind over land. In contrast, the present research deals with the offshore wind turbines aimed at installing in deep sea and operating in the same manner as onshore wind turbines. Installation of this structure ensures a lot more available space as well as fewer complaints about noise and visual intrusion. The coastal regions are usually the most economically developed with high electricity demand, thus the exploitation of offshore wind energy can not only help ease pressure on power supply in those areas but also help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The offshore wind turbine becomes potential energy exploration structure and is expected to be the future focus of development in many countries around the world
Chipozya TemboCopperbelt University Zambia
Towards achieving sustainability in the built Environment
With an increase in the global population, there is an increasing need for various types of infrastructure. Provision of the infrastructure is a challenge with the limited financial and natural resources. This is exacerbated by the need to provide sustainable infrastructure to ensure that the current resources are accessible to future generations. Sustainability economically, environmentally and socially are the main goals. The challenges and opportunities for achieving sustainability in the built environment are presented using existing literature. Notwithstanding, the challenges for sustainability are more pronounced in the existent literature. Nevertheless, the literature suggests that measures can be taken to achieve viable, bearable and equitable solutions for the sustainability of the built environment. Practically, the highlighted measures such as energy efficiency, natural resource stewardship, use of renewable natural resources, implementation of resilient building regulations/standards and collaborative problem solving can be implemented in order to achieve a sustainable built environment
Edmore ChikohoraNamibia University of Science & Technology Namibia
Adaptive algorithm for parameterization of feature extraction techniques in remote sensing images
Collaboration is one important strategy that can used by researchers from different disciplines to come up with solid next generation solutions however, the big question is who should collaborate and how do we do it? This presentation introduces part of our research work, which is a collaboration between computing and biological science ideas. The research is aimed at developing a novel algorithm that determines parameter values for feature extraction techniques in remote sensing images using the adaptive principles of the biological genes. The presentation shows some of the simulations, experiments and results obtained that evidence the potential of the developed novel algorithm. I believe collaboration with other disciplines enables the construction industry to mass produce sustainable building parts that can significantly bring down the costs to attractive levels, thereby promoting affordability of services rendered
Sessions:Advanced technologies and Smart solutions Environment protection and Green transport infrastructure Housing and Infrastructure Industrial Design Infrastructure Asset Management Innovation and Sustainable Infrastructure Research, Advances, and Innovations in Infrastructure Road Planning, Design and Transportation Situation Analysis: Current and Future Issues Smart Infrastructure and Construction Sustainable Cities, Society and Culture Urbanization and Sustainable Construction Water Infrastructure
Tarek HegazyUniversity of Waterloo Canada
Task-Specific Templates for Automated Tracking of Construction Progress Using Email and Voice
This paper introduces the development of customizable task-specific templates to be used in capturing daily progress information on construction projects. The templates are designed to capture four main categories of site information related to all project parties: progress and delays; drawing markup of work locations; Request for Information (RFI); workers’ morale, and quality/safety concerns. Two types of templates can be easily created for use as either email message to task supervisors, or interactive voice response message for phone contacts with supervisors. A tracking template is simply created by selecting from ready-made question types, including: multiple choice; information message; text entry; and voice recording. All templates are designed to be dynamic in the sense that the sequence of questions dynamically changes according to the user response (i.e., the questions change when the supervisor indicates a progress, rather than a delay), and accordingly, data collection time is minimized. Once custom tracking templates are generated, they are uploaded to a cloud server for automatic use in related activities. The paper discusses the template development and their integration within an automated progress tracking system that collects daily site information by autonomously contacting the activity supervisors at pre-set intervals. In this system, collected data are directly shown on the schedule with hyperlinks to all related information and documents. This provides a powerful visual representation of the progress evolution. The proposed templates greatly minimize the time and cost wasted on site data collection, and also enables accurate forensic analysis of projects to settle disputes and claims
Ahmed IbrahimUniversity of Idaho USA
Behavior of Hybrid Steel-Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Close-in Blast Loading
During blast explosions, a huge amount of hot gases usually released with a temperature that might rise to 200oC within a very short duration in addition to the increase in surrounding pressure usually observed. The increase in pressure would subject the target structure to stresses not usually considered during the design stage, while the increased temperature could lead to deterioration of the steel reinforcement in the concrete member, even if sufficient concrete cover is provided. The increase temperature is very beneficial to be utilized by a smart material such as shape memory alloy (SMA) because it strengthens at higher temperatures. In the last few decades, the use of steel alongside with SMA as rebar in concrete structures has received good attention among researchers because such hybrid steel-shape memory alloy (SMA) reinforcement can prolong the service life of critical structures exposed to blast loading in terms of crack propagations, bending capacity and deflection when compared with conventional reinforced concrete structures reinforced with steel only. In this study, the behavior of bridge concrete columns reinforced with steel, SMA and hybrid steel-SMA subjected to a near ground explosion is studied, using numerical analysis. The investigation has been conducted using the commercial software LS-DYNA. The dynamic response (local and global) of such concrete columns will be used to predict the governing mode of failure of the such columns. The engineering community is in need to provide an appropriate guideline in terms of ductility and strength for blast resistant design.
Amin K. AkhnoukhEast Carolina University USA
High Strength Concrete Mix Design using Low-Cement Content
The construction industry represents 10% of the gross domestic product (GDP) in the United States. Currently, reinforced concrete represents the number one material in construction with millions of metric tons poured per year. The amount of produced Portland cement for the concrete construction industry represents one of the major pollutant for today’s environment due to the huge carbon dioxide emissions. This research paper presents the efforts made to investigate the potential of using economic waste products as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) in partial replacement of Portland cement. SCMs, as micro-silica, fly ash, are used to improve the long term performance (durability) of concrete, in addition to reducing the amount of Portland cement used in mix designs. Several mixes were poured using SCMs and the equivalent reduction in Portland cement is calculated, and the reduced carbon footprint is quantified. The research findings proved that high strength concrete, with high flowing ability, and improved tensile capacity can be produced with lower amount of Portland cement. The high performance of developed mixes will have a positive economic impact due to the reduced initial cost and the low life cycle cost associated with expected lower maintenance. In addition, produced concrete mixes will have an improved environmental impact due to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, which will positively impact the LEED rating of the construction project.
Mazdak Nik-BakhtConcordia University Canada
e-Society and Construction of Sustainable Urban Infrastructure
Evolution of the urban infrastructure from a technical/engineering artifact to a socio-technical system has created a new discourse for construction and management of such urban systems, which is increasingly involved in soft and subjective criteria. Sustainability, as a case-specific and context-sensitive issue, is one of such criteria. Developing sustainable solutions for the built environment, in many cases, requires micro-knowledge which is distributed among the public and local communities. In smart cities, communication and digitized data layer built on top of the socio-technical infrastructure system provides a good opportunity for distilling such distributed knowledge. Informatics in its modern format and in the shadow of communication revolution through Social Web is, on the one hand, upgrading the e-society into a “k-society” (knowledge-enabled-society); and on the other hand promoting the citizens (external stakeholders) from the end-users of the service provided by urban infrastructure into “prosumers”. We have employed lessons learned from open business models and user innovation literature to support such a discourse shift and manage the associated complexity. The aim has been harnessing, organizing, understanding and contextualizing relevant inputs from multitudes of external stakeholders, in a semi-automated manner; processing them to actionable information and providing support for decision makers. The gain is mutual; on the one hand, urban democratization calls for involving the public in the process of decision making for the built environment, in a more active manner. On the other hand, the distributed knowledge of urban prosumers is required to make decisions resulting in a more efficient, sustainable and resilient infrastructure. In this talk, I will present some of the attempts and findings in this regard. A total of 23 mega-projects (out of the 100 top strategic infrastructure projects) in Canada and the U.S.A. were selected and closely monitored over a period of two years. Data analytics have been cherry-picked, tailored, contextualized and applied to distill the sustainability-relevant knowledge from open data (available through multiple channels including online social media and social web), as well as to increase the accountability of the public involvement process for infrastructure mega-projects.
John Julian SmallwoodNelson Mandela Metropolitan University South Africa
Improving the performance of construction project objectives
Notwithstanding the plethora of studies conducted to improve project performance in the construction sector, budget overruns, quality problems, and schedule overruns have been recurring on most construction projects. It has become widely acknowledged that delivering a construction project without overrunning its predetermined budget and schedule is almost impossible. This necessitates concerted efforts by project stakeholders, especially in developing countries to address this issue. The aim of this study is to improve the performance of selected construction project objectives (cost, quality, and time). A sample of South African contractors that are registered with the cidb (Grades 5-9) was surveyed. The sample of contractors was restricted to the provinces with the highest construction capital outlays. The study determined that time in construction is the most affected by the identified project performance influencing factors, followed by cost, and the quality. However, these project parameters are considerably dependent on one another especially time and cost. The study has not just determined the factors influencing construction project objectives, but also addressed possible interventions to improve the performance of these project parameters, hence, construction productivity. This will ultimately engender the satisfaction of stakeholders in the construction industry, and contribute to better economic performance.
Julie LarsenSyracuse University USA
The Living Archive and the Sublime Nature of the Anthropocene
At the 2015 UN Conference on Climate Change in Paris France, 195 nations reached a decision to commit to decrease the severe effects of climate change on the planet. As we embark what some call the Anthropocene Era, we bear witness to how civilization has impacted the Earth’s ecosystem, diminishing its resources and threatening its biodiversity. With this shift in our ecosystem, a new pedagogical model for a graduate architecture studio responded to the Anthropocene through a technologically sublime intervention: The Living Archive, a new infrastructural type that captures the magnitude of Earth’s inevitable transformation. The ‘living archive’ is not a stable, secure vessel but uses technological invention to bracket what is being invaded by human existence. Through the invention of an ‘archiving machine’, the studio used technological speculation to question what nature can do for new infrastructural intervention. The aim was to use ‘living archive’ as a physical commentary or critique on our current relationship to the environment. The paper describes three projects that speculate on the inevitable future of various biomes around the globe. Through environmental analysis, technological research, and formal aspirations, each project embodies a potential infrastructural approach to the Anthropocene.
Srdjan Jovanovic WeissNAO USA
Infrastructures of Memory
Since 2009, Jovanovic Weiss and Linke are documenting the current state of selected places of socialist architecture and infrastructure in the former Yugoslavia. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia disappeared in the early 1990s and was "balkanized" in various new democracies and former socialist states. Each of these new states inherited monuments, buildings, and infrastructures, which were tailored for the earlier socialist society. After the disappearing of Yugoslavia, this inherited architecture often remained empty in a kind of limbo between reutilization and modern archaeological ruin. The project Socialist Architecture – The Reappearing Act considered this indecisiveness in five emerging democracies: Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia, and investigates the relative impact on the spatial perception and the fate of the former ideological architecture of Yugoslavia. This book dares the assertion, that socialistic architecture is insofar successful to date, as it creates public space, even if the system, which produced it, disappeared. This presentation brings experiences of exploring decentralized socialist architecture across Yugoslavia between 2006 and 2009. Srdjan Jovanovic Weiss and Armin Linke found these sites appearing as spatial creatures that they believe were not in the intended official view of socialism. At times they played ball in empty halls spontaneously with curious kids who were around. At times they had to ward off angry people (and stray dogs and birds) who saw them gathering documentation. Yet, they were in a position to immerse into the success of the architecture of soft and liberal ideology of socialist Yugoslavia. These places that had been made in the name of inclusion of Yugoslavia’s soft socialism, today perform the reappearing act of their own success and spatial magic. These locations are now emptied of the ideology that made them. On the other hand, they are full of a new kind of life, and today this infrastructure of memory is more open-ended than ever intended.
Lipika SwarupCarnegie Mellon University USA
Standardizing Nomenclature within the Realm of Project Portfolio Management- State of Knowledge
The objective of this paper is to differentiate between project portfolio management (PPM) and multiple project management (MPM) and recommend standardized terminologies that can be used in future research. In pursuit of a larger study which aims to “describe the duality in the role of a project (i.e., as an influencer and the influenced) within the management of AEC operational project portfolios”, it was observed that PPM and MPM although have marginally differing definitions, they are many times used interchangeably. Considering that a majority of projects are delivered in multi-project environments this usage causes ambiguity and noise within literature. To gain a deeper understanding of the extent and nature of the uncertainty the current paper conducted a state of knowledge by collecting and analyzing 50 journal papers from multiple industries. The findings suggest that studies intervening at only organizational levels addressing issues such as alignment of the portfolio with the overall business and organizational objectives generally adopted PPM as their choice of phrase. In contrast studies focusing at operational level issues such as delivery of the individual projects as a group, are more inclined to use MPM. However owing to the mounting interest in this field and increased number of studies attempting to establish the link between organizational and operational level objectives and outcomes. The current paper recommends standardizing nomenclature by discontinuing the use of MPM and adopting only PPM. Further to explain the structure of project organization and contextualize the intervention the levels should be differentiated i.e., operational/organizational.
Markku KarjalainenTampere University of Technology Finland
Results of large survey of residents and developers of multistory timber apartment buildings in Finland
Timber residential buildings over two stories high—so-called timber apartment buildings—have been built in Finland since the mid-1990s. By June 2017, 53 3–8-story timber apartment buildings containing altogether 1293 apartments have been built in different parts of Finland. In addition, construction of new timber apartment buildings containing over 610 apartments will start in 2017. Architect Markku Karjalainen conducted an extensive survey of residents of Finland’s first timber apartment buildings in the late 1990s. To find out if residents’ attitudes toward timber apartment buildings had changed over a period of nearly twenty years, a decision was made at the end of 2016 to conduct a new survey of timber apartment building residents. Nine timber apartment building sites comprising altogether 17 buildings and 585 apartments in different parts of Finland were selected for the Timber Apartment Building Resident and Developer Survey 2017. This resident and developer survey was funded by the Ministry of the Environment and carried out by Professor Markku Karjalainen from Tampere University of Technology’s (TUT) School of Architecture. Based in this recent survey it is possible to evaluate how Finland’s newest timber apartment buildings have met the needs of orderers and residents and in what way timber apartment buildings need to be developed. The questionnaire study addressed, among other things, timber apartment building sound insulation, fire safety, ecology, overall functionality, attractiveness, and architectural quality. The 2017 timber apartment building resident survey yielded responses from 308 apartments for a response rate of 52.6 %.
Saeed Al-ShidhaniDar Ar’Ruiyah Designs Oman
Optimum Ablution: a Design Response
Islam being the religion of Oman, practicing Muslims perform ablution, or “Wu’dhu”, a cleansing ritual before each prayer, involving washing specific exposed parts of the body; using clean water, subject to individuals’ customary practice, age and physical condition (Al-Mamun 2014). Due to wasteful practices in ablution and increasing water consumption in Oman, groundwater saline water intrusion and deterioration is imminent if water withdrawal exceeds natural replenishment (FAO 2016). Presently, ablution sites are constructed with water fixtures providing on-demand water drained through troughs (Surakton 2014). During ablution, water runs at a consistent rate resulting in 80% of clean water mixing with greywater. This study investigated present-day and past methods in practicing ablution by experimenting with various male-multi generational practicing Muslims in Al-Khudh, Oman and Pullman, Washington for a variety of physical abilities, cultural behaviors. The study group performed ablution using on-demand water fixtures compared to the traditional method of containing water in a bowl, as described in Islamic historical records (Al-Mamun 2014). The findings revealed that water consumption in an ablution site ranged from 7.0 – 10.5 liters per use compared to 0.3 – 0.5 liters while using a bowl. by fusing the efficiency of the bowl method and present on-demand water fixtures, the design concept ‘Optimum Ablution’ utilizes modern mechanical systems controlling water flow lowering water usage. The design focused on conserving the ritual significance of Ablution with a user-friendly system. By using Optimum Ablution, water savings are estimated to range from 84% - 92% compared to water fixtures, saving 2 – 3 gallons of water per ablution.
Zaid A. O. AldeekYarmouk University Jordan
Towards a Modern Design and Innovative Technology of Undeveloped City using a Spatial Modeling Analysis combining Technology of Architecture and Urban Design as Language of Architecture; A Case Study of Irbid City, (in Jordan)
In the past, Jordanian cities were just small centers, with no planning systems. Today, many of these cities have expanded in response to emergency urbanization and ongoing political crises. The resulting development has irreversibly modified the urban landscape. The city of Irbid has been characterized by rapid growth as a result of political and social developments related to the regional events. This rapid growth has not been accompanied by the adequate development of infrastructure, with no appropriate development plans or an efficient public services network. Jordanian construction sector has developed in a manner that does not adhere to normal processes of building to global construction procedures. Specifically, many construction process technologies adopted in recent times are not designed to meet the country’s needs. My research consists of three directions; firstly, focusing on the problem of urban and architectural regeneration and requalification in order to identify the variables driving informal development in Irbid. Secondly, providing evidence on how rigidity in architectural design processes is the major cause of the confused situation in Jordanian building and architectural development. And finally, giving evidence on how appropriate urban planning, based on correct spatial analyses using international urban regeneration cases and local experiences and big data, could produce a tracing model of development able to understand and predict evolution mechanisms focusing attention on the role of sustainable infrastructures on the future of the city. Results show that; to propose innovative hypothesis we must first research evolution mechanisms and their transformation effects. A spatial modeling would be an interpretation model that combines effects and causes of the cited underdeveloping a situation in the future projection of sustainable development. Moreover, to emphasize the need for interventions in the main infrastructure (public transportation, sewerage system, and electrical network) to transform the city from a temporary and informal city into a modern and functional one. Finally, Attention will be on the role of urban ring roads and their attended contribution as a balance mechanism of accessibility of the unreached internal zones of the city, focusing also on their control role; limiting urban horizontal land consumption.