Event Schedules

  • Day 01

    Apr 19, 2018

  • Day 02

    Apr 20, 2018

  • Day 03

    Apr 21, 2018

Keynote Speakers

Liberato Manna


Halide Perovskite Nanocrystals: Synthesis, Transformations and their Application in Devices

Halide perovskite semiconductors can merge the highly efficient operational principles of conventional inorganic semiconductors with the low temperature solution processability of emerging organic and hybrid materials, offering a promising route towards cheaply generating electricity as well as light. Perovskites not only show exceptional primary optoelectronic properties such as a direct bandgap, small exciton binding energy, low carrier recombination rates, ambipolar transport, and tunability of the bandgap covering a wavelength range from the near infrared to the ultraviolet, but they are also very attractive for their ease of processability for mass production (e.g. printing from solution) and for the large availability of their chemical components. Following a surge of interest in this class of materials, research on halide perovskite nanocrystals as well has gathered momentum in the last three years. In such a narrow time span, several properties/features of halide perovskite nanocrystals were investigated, among them electroluminescence, lasing, anion-exchange, as well as control of size and shape such that nanocrystals in the quantum confinement regime were recently reported. The present talk will highlight the research activities of our group on halide perovskite nanocrystals, bulk crystals and films (covering mainly the last two years of research) with emphasis on synthesis,1,2 as well as structural, chemical,3 and surface transformations,4 and their applications in various types of devices.5 Our key contributions in this area include: the discovery of fast anion exchange as a means of tuning the emission from perovskite nanocrystals and its application in down-converting LEDs; the fabrication of nanostructures in the quantum confined regime; the development of colloidal inks for nanocrystal-based solar cells; new methods for a sustainable synthesis of perovskite nanocrystals; the study of 0D perovskites, their conversion to 3D perovskites and back.

Hamid Osman Hamid


A design of Diagnostic X-Ray Monitor

Due to the importance of controlling the X-ray (package) beam in the diagnostic field, and the high prices of the control kids and devices for both engineers and the medical physicist, and due to the importance of recognizing the presence or absence of an X-ray beam, the researcher found it necessary to search for tools not to measure but to work as indications of the presence of X-ray beam and to know whether or not the X-ray tube has generated the X-ray. The designed device was very simple in its construction. It is composed of a wooden box lined from inside with phosphoric plates in all its sides except two sides which are lined with two plane mirrors, in order to increase reflection of light inside the wooden box. The light emitted from the phosphoric plates affects a photo cell or, specifically, a photo resistance, which works as an electric switch, and can be in connection state when there is light or in disconnection state when there is no light (Dark).The photo cell is connected to an electronic warning circuit which makes alarm when there is light from the phosphoric plate, which indicates the presence of X-ray beam. The design unit called CMRS, which has been checked at calibrated X ray machine, the results plotted on graphs, which showed linear correlation between different parameters. The study was concluded by some recommendations for the development of CMRS, including how it can be utilized in the recognition of the quantity of the X-ray emitted by the X-ray tube, as compared with the value and standardization of the photo resistor.

Jose Miguel Garcia-Martin


Jose Miguel Garcia-Martin

In this talk, I will review our works towards the development of biocompatible and bacteria-inhibiting implants using nanostructured coatings. We have used a low-cost approach to fabricate such nanostructured coatings: oblique deposition with sputtering. This technique is energetically efficient and environmentally friendly, since it takes place at room temperature in one single step and no chemicals are involved (thus without recycling problems). The formation of nanostructures is the outcome of self-shadowing effects when the atoms arrive at the film surface along a tilted direction. We have developed a fundamental framework to explain the different morphologies obtained as well as the deposition rate [1-3]. It will be shown that such nanotextured surfaces strongly impair bacteria adhesion and inhibit biofilm formation, whilst they allow osteoblasts proliferation in the same manner than the initial medical grade substrates [4]. Finally, it will be also proved that, with feasible modifications, such approach can be scaled up to large surfaces. The obtained results provide new perspectives for manufacturing metal-based implants to prevent infections.

Seitaro Kamiya


Study on Preservation and Aggregation Mechanism of Nanoparticles including various Additive of Saccharide during Freeze-drying

The importance of application nanotechnology is increasingly recognized in the pharmaceuticals fields. Moreover, maintaining suspension state in nanoparticles is an important major issue. A method involving lyophilization with the addition of saccharides can be employed to sustain the state of nanoparticles. However, this is outstanding method because freeze-drying has not been sufficiently discussed. At the present study, we focus on freeze-drying and normal-drying method. Trisaccharides, tetrasaccharides, and pentasaccharides were added to the nanoparticle suspensions, followed by rehydration of the samples, which had been either dried normally or freeze-dried. The particle size after rehydration each sample at that time was then measured. In addition, each saccharide was measured using a powder X-ray diffractometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) device. We studied the association between the nanoparticles aggregation and the crystal form of saccharides and their mechanisms by using the obtained results of the data of particle size, powder X-ray pattern, and DSC curves. The relationship between degrees of the nanoparticles aggregation and degree of crystallization are gradually figured out. By continuing this research, the saccharide additives map for preservation nanoparticles will be drawn.

Jan Dusza

Research of SAS Watsonova

Ceramic -Carbon Based Filler Nanocomposites

The deformation and damage characteristics of differently oriented WC grains/crystals in WC – Co, Si3N4 grains/crystals in reaction bonded Si3N4 system and ZrB2 grains/crystals in ZrB2 polycrystal were investigated. Depth-sensing nano-indentation and scratch tests of grains and micro-compression tests of micropillars prepared by focused ion beam from oriented facets of grains were studied. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations were performed to determine the grain orientation and to study the surface morphology and the resulting deformation and damage mechanisms around the indents and in micropillars. The hardness and scratch resistance of the differently orientated grains showed significant angle dependence from the basal towards the prismatic directions. A strong influence of the grains orientation on compressive yield stress and rupture stress values was found during the micropillar test, too. The active slip systems for individual ceramics have been recognized. The different properties of the basal and prismatic planes was found to be connected with the different deformation mechanisms – slip and dislocation activities.

Nekane Guarrotxena


Nano Plasmonic-based SERS Tags for biomedical targeting, sensing, imaging and therapy.

Noble metal NPs, on basis of the surface Plasmon resonance phenomenon, provides unique optical properties highly useful for effective targeting, sensing, and imaging with a variety of techniques leading to both diagnostics and therapies, in nanomedicine. These optical excitations, highly NP-surface, -assembly, and environment- dependent, make the basis for the indirect target-molecules recognition, imaging and detection with several intrinsic advantages. Lately, the important implementation of SERS tags design has opened a new avenue for the application of SERS in the medical and clinical field. They have proven very useful in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro applications with improved sensitivity. Main emphasis may be placed on the multiplexing, which is perhaps the most significant feature of SERS tags in the biomedical field applicability. Herein, I will highlight how SERS tags can become exciting multifunctional nanomaterial in nanomedicine by their usefulness in surface Plasmon- based sensing, imaging, drug delivery and photo thermal therapy.


Molecular Nanotechnology

Anna Jagusiak


Supra Molecular Ribbon- Like Compounds Interactions With Metal Ions and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes – Challenges for Nano Medicine

Congo red (CR) or Evans blue (EB) dye molecules self-associate in water solutions creating ribbon-like supramolecular structures. This structures can bind various aromatic compounds - including drugs - by intercalation, forming mixed supramolecular systems. They can also interact with metal ions, allowing them to be used as carrier systems for metals used in microbiology. Some supramolecular ribbon-like systems interact with the surface of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT), providing nanotubes dispersion. The study revealed the presence of strong interactions between CR and the surface of SWNT. The aim of the study was to explain the mechanism of this interaction. Spectral analysis of the SWNT-CR complex, the effect of sonication on binding of CR, microscopic methods and molecular modelling analyses were used. Results indicate that binding of supramolecular CR structures to the surface of the nanotubes is based on the face to face stacking. The study shows high potential of CR binding to the surface of the nanotubes, which also increases the binding capacity of drugs on example of model drug - doxorubicine (DOX). Antimicrobial activity of metal ions, especially of silver ions has been known since ancient times. Finding an easily accessible, cheap and efficient carrier for metal ions is one of the most important challenges. The carrier system presented in the study consists of a mixed supramolecular system. The use of metal ions in the form of complexes makes it possible to lower the toxicity threshold. On the other hand, using a carrier system provides selectivity of action and, by increased solubility, facilitates excretion from the organism. The presented systems – containing SWNT covered with CR or consisting of mixed supramolecular systems that bind metal ions – offer a wide range of biomedical applications.

Udo Schwingenschlogl


Potential and limitations of 2D Materials: Insights from Computational Theory

The presentation aims to provide an overview of recent developments in the field of 2D materials beyond graphene. From the materials point of view, the main focus will be on silicene, monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, and MXenes. A series of examples will be addressed in order to illustrate how state-of-the-art computational theory based on first-principles materials modeling can contribute to understanding the basic physical and chemical phenomena in 2D condensed matter. Silicene, the Si analogue of graphene, is of great present interest due to its compatibility with the established Si technology. Regrettably, the strong interaction with common substrates eliminates the Dirac physics. Alternatives will be proposed and the effects on silicene evaluated with respect to technological requirements. Important features of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides will be introduced, including the giant spin-orbit coupling, the Rashba spin splitting in polar structures, and the inherent limitations of magnetic doping. As prototypical example of an interface between two 2D materials, the semiconductor/metal contact MoS2/Ti2CY2 (Y = F and OH) will be studied.


Nano Biomaterials

Ján Dusza


Nano-mechanical testing of advanced ceramics

The deformation and damage characteristics of differently oriented WC grains/crystals in WC – Co, Si3N4 grains/crystals in reaction bonded Si3N4 system and ZrB2 grains/crystals in ZrB2 polycrystal were investigated. Depth-sensing nano-indentation and scratch tests of grains and micro-compression tests of micropillars prepared by focused ion beam from oriented facets of grains were studied. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations were performed to determine the grain orientation and to study the surface morphology and the resulting deformation and damage mechanisms around the indents and in micropillars. The hardness and scratch resistance of the differently orientated grains showed significant angle dependence from the basal towards the prismatic directions. A strong influence of the grains orientation on compressive yield stress and rupture stress values was found during the micropillar test, too. The active slip systems for individual ceramics have been recognized. The different properties of the basal and prismatic planes was found to be connected with the different deformation mechanisms – slip and dislocation activities.

Siqun Wang

Creating superhydrophobic surfaces using natural cellulose nanomaterials

It is common to use inorganic materials that are difficult to degrade in environment for creating superhydrophobic surfaces. In our work, superhydrophobic surfaces are successfully prepared using renewable and environmentally friendly natural cellulose nanomaterials (such as nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystal (L-CNC) particles) by different methods. And it is a challenge for superhydrophobic surfaces to overcome the poor robustness. Here, we tried to use different adhesives (such as commercial spray adhesive, polyvinyl alcohol, double-sided tape, and quick-setting epoxy) to improve adhesion. The resulting surfaces show excellent self-cleaning and water repellence properties, also possessing outstanding mechanical strength and durability against sandpaper abrasion, finger-wipe, knife-scratch and so on. In view of the environmental performance, it is to be expected that the superhydrophobic surfaces from natural cellulose nanomaterials will be of great potential application value.


Nano Electronics

Zaiping Guo


Advanced Electrode Materials for Metal Ion Batteries

Energy storage is an important problem to realize low carbon society and there have been many challenges. Metal ion batteries, such as Lithium ion batteries and sodium ion batteries are particularly attracted attention of scientists and engineers as promising devices. Materials engineering plays a key role in the field of battery research. In particular, engineering materials at the nanoscale offers unique properties resulting in high performance electrodes in various energy storage devices. Consequently, considerable efforts have been made in recent years to fulfill the future requirements of electrochemical energy storage devices. Various multi-functional hybrid nanostructured materials are currently being studied to improve energy and power densities of next generation batteries. In this talk, I will present some of our recent progress in the synthesis of different types of hybrid nanostructures to enhance the electrochemical energy storage properties of Li-ion battery, sodium-ion battery and potassium-ion battery.

Antonio Tejeda


Nanostructures with perspectives for photovoltaic and electronics studied by photoemission

Electronic properties are the keystone of many different applications. Photovoltaic or electronic devices rely strongly on parameters related to the electronic band structure as the amplitude and nature of the band gap or the charge carrier effective masses. Photoemission is the technique that provides a direct insight on the occupied band structure. It is based on the photoelectric effect (Albert Einstein’s Nobel, 1921) and it become a standard analysis technique after the work of Kai Siegban (Nobel prize 1981) [1]. I will show in the following the application of the photoemission technique to materials with strong potential for photovoltaics and electronics, namely hybrid perovskites and graphene nanostructures In graphene, a major technological issue is the opening of a band gap in its electronic structure, necessary to perform on-off switching operations in transistors. We have shown three different nanostructuration approaches to open a gap in graphene and tailor its electronic band structure. This includes (1) nanostructuration of graphene into graphene sidewall nanoribbons, (2) preparing a well-ordered buffer layer graphene and (3) introduction of a superperiodic potential in graphene grown on vicinal noble metal nanostructured substrates In organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, extremely promising absorber materials for low-cost photovoltaic solar cells, theoretical calculations show a dispersion of a factor of 3 in the determination of the effective mass. Motivated by this controversy, we performed the first k-resolution determination of the band structure of the hybrid perovskites and we studied their electronic dynamics [6-8]. Part of the work leading to this presentation has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 687008 (GOTSolar)


Nano Biotechnology

Sergio M. Acuña

Diphenylalanine Micro-Nanostructures filled with Anthocyanins

Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments that are widely distributed in plants, principally in flowers, fruits and vegetables. In recent decades there has been intense interest in anthocyanins, due to numerous studies that have shown that anthocyanin-rich berries provide strong antioxidants, inhibit the growth of tumor cells, induce apoptosis, and possess anticarcinogenic properties. However, anthocyanins are rapidly degraded when consumed orally, making it necessary to seek alternatives to preserve their bioactivity. One of the most widely used techniques for preserving bioactivity of compounds is the encapsulation. This was precisely the aim of this work, encapsulate, or rather, fill micro-nanostructures made from diphenylalanine with anthocyanins. Anthocyanins were extracted from blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) using water at 70°C, concentrated in vacuum and its concentration was determined by absorbance at 517 nm in a spectrophotometer. An aliquot of anthocyanins was diluted to 1:30 in deionized water. Diphenylalanine micro-nanostructures were prepared dissolving 20 mg of lyophilized diphenylalanine (Bachem) in 5 mL of anthocyanines solution 1:30 at 65°C, and the sample equilibrated for 30 min and then gradually cooled to room temperature. Micro-nanostructures formation was evidenced by AFM, and SEM images. The complex formation between anthocyanins and nanotubes was performed using UV-visible and infrared spectrophotometers. Microscopic images show that the micro-nanostructures obtained have diameters between 200 nm and 500 nm and their lengths can be greater than 1 μm. According to the UV-visible and infrared spectra obtained, anthocyanins almost disappeared from the solution. This would indicate that anthocyanins form a complex with dyphenylalanine micro-nanostructures. We suggest that anthocyanines are inside micro-nanostructures, and they were trapped inside micro-nanostructures during self-assembly. Likewise, we believe that diphenylalanine micro-nanostructures can serve as carriers for various substances with active principles.

Guillermo Valdes Mesa

The convergence of technologies, generates convergence in the regulations

The convergence of nanotechnologies generates synergies among different technologies to say, nanotechnologies, neurotechnology, computers and biotechnology, these technologies must converge( 7) in their regulations, the application of medical devices in nanotechnologies should lead us to a link between the technical committee TC 210 and ISO technical committee 229 link that does not exist in our work in this moment In this do an analysis of the management of risk from an optical NC-ISO 14971(1). Studying the global trend in this respect as imported for manufacturers medical Devices worldwide. The convergences of technologies is a consequence of atomic precision, where the boundary between the biotic and abiotic mute blur the interaction. The interaction between nanotechnologies, biotechnology and informatics and communications (NBI) generates a synergy of unusual consequences of all is known that the industry of semiconductor( 5)s is the one of greater precision that is atomic, the new medical devices that will be applied in the teranocis will dose Physical principles that will be governed under the laws of quantum mechanics( 4), but there are two problems that have not been solved even though they are one the non-existence of quantum biology and the transition from quantum to classical mechanics. On the other hand, the redefinition of the international system of units based on the universal constants that will be implemented by 2018 has a deficiency that is the second that redefirms implies redefinition of the meter the chain of traceability proposed for nanometrology presents a serious difficulty when putting the microcopy of atomic force wing of effect tunnel.

Mahboobeh Jalali

Faculty of Biological Science

Response of maize plants to repeated application of Fe3O4 nanoparticles

Iron is an essential micronutrient which its deficiency is frequently encountered on calcareous soils. Although the application of nanoparticles (NPs) to plants has been recently implemented, their long-term effects have not been studied yet. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the treatment of maize plants with 100 ppm iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) through their lifecycle would affect the development of the next generation seed quality. The results were discussed in comparison with those of 100 ppm iron chelate (ICh). In brief, the maize plants were treated with or without IONPs and ICh and their seeds were planted in order to obtain the second generation. The latter was again treated with or without IONPs and ICh and the results of two generations were compared. In the first generation, IONPs treatments improved maize photosynthesis, hydrogen peroxide. The improvement of calcium, Fe2+, total iron, and ferritin contents were more pronounced in IONPs treatments. However, the results indicated that second generation seedlings grown from seeds collected from treated parent plants with IONPs were generally smaller and weaker, as indicated by less biomass, lower contents of chlorophyll, protein, and calcium but higher amount of total iron content. In comparison, no adverse effects on growth parameters were observed in the plants which were treated with ICh for two subsequent generations, while their total iron and ferritin contents were remarkable. Due to the adverse effects of IONPs in the second generation of maize, more caution in its application for consecutive years is recommended.


Molecular Nanotechnology

Rosa Lelyana

Neuroprotective Benefit of Coffee Powder Extract as Nanoparticle for Healthy Brain

Inflammation response is important for maintaining our healthy body and brain (i). High inflammation response predominantly in the brain will influence body get sickness easier than normal inflammation response (ii). High inflammation response in the brain, will make imbalance immune system and uncontrolled body metabolism (iii). There are many healthy benefits of nanoparticle using coffee powder extract (iv). This review systematic study will give explanation that biosynthesis of coffee’s nanoparticle has benefit for our brain. Coffee powder extract from coffee’s plant is good nanoparticle for healthy body and brain. Adenosine will increase during inflammation proceed (v). Caffeine is an inhibitor of adenosine (vi). Chlorogenic acid is one of phenolic compounds which has positive effects as antagonize adenosine receptor. Chlorogenic acid will bind caffeine for doing well activity as antagonize adenosine receptor (vii). Caffeine and chlorogenic acid have a positive effects as antagonize adenosine receptor (viii). This mechanism combine between caffeine and chloro genic acid will reduce the inflammation response in the brain. So, nanoparticle of coffee has benefit as neuroprotective effect.

Ruslan Z. Valiev

Bulk nanostructured metals with multifunctional properties

In recent years, the development of bulk nanostructured materials (BNM) has become one of the most topical directions in materials science. Nanostructuring of various materials is a key for obtaining extraordinary properties that are very attractive for different structural and functional applications. During the last two decades, grain refinement by severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques has attracted special interest since it offers new opportunities for the fabrication of nanostructured metals and alloys for various specific applications [1, 2]. This report is devoted to research and development of a variety of nanostructured metals and alloys with advanced multifunctional properties, when their high mechanical properties (strength, fatigue, wear resistance) go with high physical (electrical conductivity (Fig. 1), magnetic properties, etc.) or chemical (corrosion resistance, biocompatibility) ones. Physical nature of such unusual combination of properties in nanoSPD materials is discussed and the examples of innovative applications of such materials in engineering and medicine are considered as well.


Nano Devices

Thomas J. Webster

20 Years of Commercializing Medical Devices Using Nanotechnology

There is an acute shortage of organs due to disease, trauma, congenital defects, and most importantly, age related maladies. The synthetic materials used in tissue engineering applications today are typically composed of millimeter or micron sized particles and/or fiber dimensions. Although human cells are on the micron scale, their individual components, e.g. proteins, are composed of nanometer features. By modifying only the nanofeatures on material surfaces without changing surface chemistry, it is possible to increase tissue growth of any human tissue by controlling the endogenous adsorption of adhesive proteins onto the material surface. In addition, our group has shown that these same nanofeatures and nano-modifications can reduce bacterial growth without using antibiotics, which may further accelerate the growth of antibiotic resistant microbes. Inflammation can also be decreased through the use of nanomaterials. Finally, nanomedicine has been shown to stimulate the growth and differentiation of stem cells, which may someday be used to treat incurable disorders, such as neural damage. This strategy also accelerates FDA approval and commercialization efforts since new chemistries are not proposed, rather chemistries already approved by the FDA with altered nanoscale features. This invited talk will highlight some of the advancements and emphasize current nanomaterials approved by the FDA for human implantation.


Nano Materials Synthesis and Characterisation

WanDoo Kim

Fabrication of 3D printing scaffold with decellularized bioink For soft tissue engineering

Recently, numerous research groups have developed 3D bio-printing processes for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this study, we prepared 3D printable bioink containing extracellular matrix (ECM) isolated from decellularized porcine dermis tissue and evaluated the properties of bioink for suitability in 3D bioprinting applications. The decellularized ECM was extracted by mechanical, enzymatic, and chemical treatments of porcine dermis tissue. After decellularization, no nucleic acids residue was detected by DNA content, DAPI fluorescence staining and, hematoxylin and eosin staining. We sought to develop an optimized technique for decellularization of porcine dermis ECM. Moreover, major ECM components were measured, including acid/pepsin soluble collagen and soluble elastin. The elastin content increased substantially, and the collagen content reduced moderately after decellularization. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component and chemical interactions forming the decellularized ECM. Decellularized ECM exhibited similar FTIR spectra as commercial type I collagen and no observable differences could be determined. To identify the printability of the bioink, hydrogel, viscosity of bioink and alginate were measured with the different concentration of ECM. As the ECM concentration increases, the viscosity was higher. To assess the biocompatibility of the bioinks, bio-ink/cells (NIH3T3 fibroblast cell line) printed structures were measured by live/dead assay and WST-1. Practically no dead cells were observed in the structure contained 10 mg/ml ECM, which indicates that proper amounts of ECM bio-ink for nontoxic. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the dermis decellularized ECM is as a bioink candidate for 3D bioprinting.

Jau Tang

The applications of four-dimensional electron microscopy in nanomaterial’s

Using 4D electron microscopy by combining the nanometer spatial resolution of electron Microscopy with the femtosecond temporal resolution of fs laser pulses and electron pulses we have investigated ultrafast phenomena of nanostructured materials. Our goals are to elucidate their structures, dynamics and novel physical properties so that people could develop potential applications to solve important energy, environment and biomedicine related issues. In our first Science paper, we presented the applications of ultrafast scanning electron microscopy (USEM) to a study of photo induced carrier dynamics across semiconductor p-n junctions. We observed fast charge separation of electrons and holes at the p-n junction and their extremely fast ballistic dynamics, contrary to the conventional description in solid state textbooks of diffusive carrier transport. We attributed our observed phenomena to slower electron-phonon collision time on the surface at high carrier temperatures and also to polarity-dependent gating mechanism at the junction. In other work recently published in Science and also in Science Advances, we demonstrated novel applications of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM) of nanoparticles in liquid solution. We have discovered very fast anomalous Brownian motion of gold nanoparticles upon femtosecond laser excitation. Unlike the well-known Einstein's theory for Brownian motion with linear time dependence for the mean square displacement, the observed dynamics exhibits several kinds of time dependence, covering ballistic, super-diffusion as well as the normal diffusion regimes. Moreover, the corresponding diffusion constant is four orders of magnitude greater than same nanoparticles in the absence of laser excitation. We elucidated the impulsive driving forces on gold nanoparticles as caused by water vapor nanobubbles generated by pulsed laser heating. In another work published recently in Angew. Chemje Int. we applied the PINEM (photon-induced near field electron microscopy) technique to investigate human cancer cells. We could unfold the protein receptor conformations on the surface of cancer cell membranes which are characteristically different from the normal cells. We have also used 4D electron diffraction, published much earlier in Nature Comm., we demonstrated that the whole crystallization processes of a TiO2 thin film, from melt, via nucleation to crystal formation, could be visualized and investigated during the crystal growth.

Şükrü Tüzmen

A classical technique to determine the function of a gene is to experimentally inhibit its gene expression in order to examine the resulting phenotype or effect on molecular endpoints and signaling pathways. RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the recent discoveries of a naturally occurring mechanism of gene regulation facilitated by the induction of double stranded RNA into a cell. This event can be utilized to silence the expression of specific genes by transfecting mammalian cells with synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). siRNAs can be designed to silence the expression of specific genes bearing a particular target sequence and may potentially be presented as a therapeutic strategy for inhibiting transcriptional regulation of genes, which in such instances constitute a more attractive strategy than small molecule drugs. Low dose drug and siRNA combination studies are promising strategies for the purpose of identifying synergistic targets that facilitate reduction of undesired gene expression and/or cell growth depending on the research of interest. Commercially available RNAi libraries have made high-throughput genome-scale screening a feasible methodology for studying complex mammalian cell systems. However, it is crucial that any observed phenotypic change be confirmed at either the mRNA and/or protein level to determine the validity of the targeted genes. Currently, qPCR is widely utilized for accurate evaluation and validation of gene expression profiling. In this study, we describe a high-throughput screening of RNAi based gene knock-down approach and qPCR validation of specific transcript levels. In light of such advantageous applications, siRNA technology has become an ideal research tool for studying gene function in research fields including Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, and holds the promise that the utilization of siRNA-based therapeutic agents will accelerate drug discovery in clinical trials.