Event Schedules

  • Day 01

    Apr 16, 2019

  • Day 02

  • Day 03

Keynote Speakers

Erdem Cuce

University of Bayburt
TURKEY

A novel building material for low/zero carbon buildings: Thermally resistive PV glazing

Windows are useful elements of buildings which provide air ventilation and passive solar gain. Besides, owing to their transparent structure, they enable residents to view the outside. However, the role of windows in total energy losses from building envelope is unequivocal. This can be attributed to the poor thermal resistance characteristics of conventional fenestration products. When the glazed area is noticeably large in a building envelope like in case of glass curtain walls, the dramatic role of windows in total energy loss from buildings becomes much more remarkable. In this respect, alternative solutions are considered to mitigate window-oriented energy losses in buildings, and photovoltaic (PV) glazing systems are of significant relevance. PV glazing is highly utilised in modern architecture owing to aesthetic features as well as being capable of generating electricity. However, thermal insulation performance of traditional PV glazing products is even worse than ordinary single glazing. Therefore, advanced PV glazing systems are required to provide clean energy generation and attractive thermal insulation in a single fenestration product. Within the scope of this research funded by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) through the project (216M531) entitled “Development of a novel, energy-efficient, eco-friendly and multi-functional glazing technology for low/zero carbon buildings: An experimental, numerical and statistical investigation”, a novel PV glazing (thermally resistive PV glazing – TR-PVG) is developed. It is reported in previous literature that the overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value) of air filled double glazed window, air filled double glazed window with low-e and argon filled double glazed window with low-e is 2.53, 2.10 and 1.90 W/m2K, respectively. It is also clear from the state-of-the-art building codes that these values are not sufficient to meet the 2030 and 2050 low/zero carbon building standards. TR-PVG is expected to have a U-value below 0.60 W/m2K as a consequence of thermally resistive composite structure behind the semi-transparent amorphous silicon (a-Si) PV cell consisting of inert gases and liquids with low thermal conductivity and high specific heat capacity. TR-PVG is predicted to generate about 100 W electricity per m2 PV cell area. Moreover, TR-PVG has a self-cleaning feature owing to a nano-coating on the PV cell surface. The whole structure is also attractive in terms of sound insulation. The cost of TR-PVG is estimated to me lower than €250.00, which is also promising and competitive with the PV conventional glazing products in market.

Sessions:

Biomass, Bio-fuels, Bio-gas
Energy Efficiency, Technologies and Energy Management
Geothermal Energy
Solar Power Generation
Waste-to-Energy

Alejandro Zaleta Aguilar

University of Guanajuato
Mexico

In this paper the exergy-based thermo-characterization method is used to optimize a small scale downdraft gasifier. The optimization model is based on a Beta-parameter that is used to estimate the variation of exergy change in a component due to either intrinsic or induced malfunctions. As a novelty, the proposed method performs two analyses independently: one to find the variation of efficiency with respect to the change of the system enthalpy and another with respect to the change of the system entropy. This permits to characterize the thermodynamic performance of any gasifier by means of parametric maps. Hence thermo-characterization premises are deeply revised and adapted to the gasifier. To assess the system performance and determine the irreversibilities of the components, a plant simulator is constructed and a parametric study is performed. According to results, the exergy efficiency of the gasifier can be improved from 49.64% to 57.52%

Afsanehsadat Larimi

Niroo Research Institute
Iran

The steam reforming of ethylene glycol, a simple model compound for biomass-derived liquids, is considered to be an environmentally green process for producing renewable hydrogen. Both Pt and Ni species are known for their catalytic activity under steam reforming reaction conditions. In this investigation, alumina supported Ni-Pt bimetallic catalysts (X wt% Ni-Y wt% Pt/Al2O3 named XNi-YPt) were employed for steam reforming of ethylene glycol. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, H2-TPR, H₂-Chemisorption, and TEM. It was observed that Ni/Pt ratio strongly affected the redox behavior, BET surface area, and particle size of the samples that in turn affected their catalytic performance. The optimum catalyst sample was 3.75Ni-1.25 Pt which resulted in the highest ethylene glycol conversion (60%), highest H2 selectivity (45%) and yield (27%), and a minimum of 20 h of stability due to the lowest amount of coke formed the catalyst surface. The overall order of the catalytic performance of the samples was as follows: 3.75Ni-1.25 Pt > 2.5Ni-2.5 Pt > 1.25Ni-3.75 Pt > 0Ni-5Pt > 5Ni-0Pt.

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

Energy Research Institute (ERI), Nottingham
United Kingdom

Sudan is an agricultural country with fertile land, plenty of water resources, livestock, forestry resources, and agricultural residues. Energy is one of the key factors for the development of national economies in Sudan. An overview of the energy situation in Sudan is introduced with reference to the end uses and regional distribution. Energy sources are divided into two main types; conventional energy (woody biomass, petroleum products, and electricity); and non-conventional energy (solar, wind, hydro, etc.). Sudan possesses a relatively high abundance of sunshine, solar radiation, moderate wind speeds, hydro, and biomass energy resources. Application of new and renewable sources of energy available in Sudan is now a major issue in the future energy strategic planning for the alternative to the fossil conventional energy to provide part of the local energy demand. Sudan is an important case study in the context of renewable energy. It has a long history of meeting its energy needs through renewables. Sudan’s renewables portfolio is broad and diverse, due in part to the country’s wide range of climates and landscapes. Like many of the African leaders in renewable energy utilisation, Sudan has a well-defined commitment to continue research, development, and implementation of new technologies. Sustainable low-carbon energy scenarios for the new century emphasise the untapped potential of renewable resources. Rural areas of Sudan can benefit from this transition. The increased availability of reliable and efficient energy services stimulates new development alternatives. It is concluded that renewable environmentally friendly energy must be encouraged, promoted, implemented, and demonstrated by full-scale plan especially for use in remote rural areas.

Abdul Rauf Bhatti

Government College University Faisalabad
Pakistan

The widespread application of plug-in electricvehicle (PEV) isexpected to reduce the problemsrelated to greenhousegases due to the internal combustion engines. However, the charging of PEV imposes an additionalburden on the utility grid, particularlyduring the (day) peakhours. To alleviatethisproblem, thispaper proposes an EV chargingscheme for the system that combines the photovoltaic (PV) and energystorage unit (ESU) with the grid. The schemeis capable of providing interruption-lesscharging for PEV in an office parking environment. The main featureisthatitcanfulfill the chargingdemand of each PEV within one hourwhilereducing the additionalburden on the grid. This algorithmisbased on rule-basedstrategies. To determine the effectiveness of the scheme, numerouscharging scenarios are simulatedusing Matlab. The initial resultsindicatethat the chargingthroughproposedschemeismuchcheaperthan the normal chargingusing the gridalone. Moreover, it has shown to reduce the considerableamount of burdenfrom the grid. It isenvisagedthisworkwillprovide an exciting prospect to the researchers in the field of EV chargingusingrenewableenergy sources.

Ali Shahmohammadi

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Tehran, Iran

The electricity industry has seen rising penetrations of nondispatchable renewable energy sources (RESs). This has historically been driven by policy mandates, such as subsidies or renewable portfolio standards. Analysing the effects of increasingly growing RESs on electricity market equilibrium is a crucial task, letting the policy makers, market designers and regulators to examine market rules and structures and to refine market designs with the aim of maximizing the efficient accommodation of RESs in electric power systems and markets. To this end, a bi-level multi-period modeling of market equilibrium in presence of high penetration of RESs is proposed and studied and its results would be presented in the talk. Market interactions between storage, wind, and conventional units under a variety of market and ownership structures are examined using the proposed bilevel-equilibrium framework.The proposed model is applied to different case studies with a number of market and asset-ownership structures. This includes cases in which energy storage and wind are price-taking or price-making and variety of equilibria are found ranging from extremely collusive to competitive outcomes. Obtained results show that rising penetrations of RESs in electric power systems can raise different challenges like suppressing wholesale energy prices by displacing higher-cost conventional generation from the merit order. Wind suffers disproportionately from this price suppression, because the price is most suppressed when wind availability is high, hindering wind-investment incentives. The increasing need for dispatchable generation with fast-ramping capabilities is known as another inefficiency caused by the high variability of renewable generation. Based on the results, in a market with strategic price-making firms, energy storage is a preferred solution to these inefficiencies. Regarding variety of structures considered for participation of energy storage, a market structure in which renewable generation and energy storage are co-owned is the most efficient in terms of integrating renewable energy.

Bassma ANTOUH

Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University
Morocco

A Meso study is the economic assessment of environmental degradation at the level of an economic sector or an urban community. The objective of MESO studies is to capture and measure the order of magnitude of flows, to account for them together with their transformations and impacts on the environment. Then, the consequences of these actions are estimated monetarily in terms of the cost of environmental degradation (costs of damage and inefficiencies) and remediation costs. Finally, these values are expressed in relation to the value added (VA) of the entity concerned. Energy is the engine of economic and human development and per capita energy consumption can be considered as an indicator of the country's state of development. On the environmental front, the increase in energy consumption inevitably exacerbates pressures on the environment. The city of Fez is one of most populous cities in the country; it is the second after Casablanca, it is concerned by the overconsumption of energy and raw materials in the same way as the other big cities of the country. If it is true that the human activities, craft, commercial, industrial and tourist of this urban community have economic benefits and considerable progress in terms of the standard of living of the population, we can find that the inefficient consumption of energy and raw materials leads to significant impacts, including air pollution, landscape, loss of soil, agricultural or forest land, fire or oil pollution, etc. The main objective of this study is to estimate the economic cost of environmental degradation due to the use of energy and its inefficiencies, the cost of remediation actions likely to avoid this degradation and inefficiencies. The values obtained are then expressed in relation to the sum of the added values of the city of Fez: The interpreted results in terms of economy and environment make it possible to refine the priorities selected and to quantify their importance in the form of benefit ratios. / costs. Finally, sensitivity analyzes are produced, recommendations are proposed to decision-makers in order to prioritize their actions.

FeifeiYang

North China Electric Power University
Beijing,China

Under China’s new electricity market reform program, distributed power or micro grid is allowed to participate in electricity transactions to improve economic benefit. Under the power market environment,this paper analyzes the cooperative operation of multiple economic entities including the photovoltaic operators, energy storage operators and users, and builds a time-sharing scheduling strategy model according to the running state of eachentity. Taking a distributed photovoltaic and energy storage project in Shanghai as an example, this paper analyzes the game behavior among the various entities, and calculates the overall cooperative income with the aim of maximizing thecooperative income, and also calculate the incomesharing schemeof the entitiesusing the Shaply value. The impact of market environment factors such as peak valley price, self-consumption ratio and grid-connected ratio on the cooperative income is discussed. The results show that the cooperative operation of multiple entities can produce cooperation surplus and improve the income level. Moreover, the improvement of market environment can further improve the economic efficiency of the project and promote the industrial scale development.

Festus Boamah

University of Bayreuth
Germany.

Recent strenuous efforts by African governments to achieve universal electricity access provide impetus for off-grid electricity provision in sparsely populated/peripheral locations where grid-based electricity provision is usually expensive, slower to achieve, less efficient and electricity consumption is generally low. Decentralized electrification, particularly self-organized initiatives, may however challenge how parastatals exercise spatial control over centralized electricity provision to drive certain visions (life-line tariffs, investment plans, revenue requirements, promotion of business activities, etc.). The recent spatial expansion of electricity infrastructure to achieve universal electricity access under Kenya’s vision 2020 coincides with a massive uptake of Solar Home Systems (SHS) in sparsely populated peripheral locations where grid electricity is usually either unavailable or electricity supply is unreliable. Residents in the periphery, at least based on the selected sample, therefore restrict very important social practices to energy services easily enabled by SHS and/or choose to perform less important practices periodically using grid electricity. Drawing on a study of 35 sampled households from nine counties in Kenya, I present evidence suggesting that massive SHS adoption expresses societal quests to circumvent uncertainties associated with centralized electricity provision. The re-configuration of social practices around SHS provide avenues to address electricity supply uncertainties but it can head state-designed interventions off in the periphery. Is the spatial constitution of electricity infrastructure in Kenya a recipe for energy autonomy or fluid energy futures? I therefore hypothesize a range of energy futures in settings characterized by wide spatial disparities in grid electricity supply/demand and decentralized solar PV euphoria.

François Benhmad

University of Montpellier
France

The aim of the paper is to quantify the impact of increasing renewable energy sources (RES), especially wind generation and photovoltaic feed-in, on electricity prices in Germany, with a view to investigating the well-known merit order effect. To explore the dynamics of the merit order effect at an hourly resolution, we use the SURE methodology for carrying out an empirical analysis based on hourly historical data for the Germany electricity market between 2012 and 2017. Our main empirical findings confirm that increasing the share of wind generation and photovoltaic feed-in induces a sharp fall in electricity spot prices. Moreover, this impact varies throughout the 24 h of the day due to the dynamics of electricity demand and the intermittency of wind and solar photovoltaic feed-in.

Michel Rwema

Pan African University Institute of water and Energy Sciences
Tlemcen, Algeria

Energy is considered the most powerful key for a country to measure its economic development. Rwanda energy sector is one of the important drivers for her economic transformation and livelihood improvement of her population toward the country’s vision 2020. However, her energy generation is not enough to meet current demand driven by the high growth of the industrial sector and high population growth. An attentive analysis was conducted with the aim of investigating the potential of renewables (solar and wind) in five locations and to identify the gaps in the energy sector to promote renewables in energy generation to meet the current and future demand. The impact of the high population after 28 years was identified. Energy policy, Rwanda energy-related reports, and articles were investigated. Solar and wind data from five locations were analyzed. The potential for solar was found in these five locations and one location identified with the speed of 5.3 m/s at a complicated height of 150m. Deployment of hydro among other renewable energy resources was high (60% of total installed capacity) and far more promoted by the energy policy regardless its limited potential. Doubling time of population relative to the increase in energy demand was identified as 2048 due to its growth (2.48%) and its impact was identified. We concluded that the renewables yield response to energy problem and climate change adaptation. To sustain country’s growing economy and ensure the effective deployment of renewables, the sector needs high attention in addressing all the gaps identified.

O. M. Espinoza-Ojeda

Michoacan University of Saint Nicholas of Hidalgo
Mexico

Currently, México has a great geothermal potential of high enthalpy under exploitation for power generation. According to several published scientific works, exist a large number of thermal manifestations sites considered as low and medium enthalpy, but some of these sites are poorly studied or explored. Alongside, México has very large continental petroleum zones with hundreds of drilled boreholes, which areabandoned due that petroleum resources have been exhausted. Those abandoned petroleum boreholes can be proposed for a geothermal project, thatmight reduce the project investment costs more than 50%.This option is considerably attractive when it could be applied to a very large network of abandoned boreholesor complete hydrocarbons fields.Coupled with this, scientific evidence confirms that the majority of petroleum boreholes were drilled in areas with highgeothermal gradient, which makes them a possible renewable source of geothermal energy. To define the geothermal potential resources from Geothermal and Petroleum Systems, a reliable knowledge from all the involved geological, geophysical and geochemical parametersis required. One of the most important stages of geophysical exploration is the studying the thermal regime caused by the heat transfer that occurs in the formation or reservoir. The thermal regime is defined by the formation temperature profiles and its specific geological characteristics. In this context, conductive surface heat flow data were calculated through drilling logs [Borehole Transient Temperature (TBT) and/or Bottom-Hole Temperature (BHT), and stratigraphic profiles] from geothermal and petroleum boreholes. Therefore, a numericalsimulator was developed to compute the conductive steady statethermal model from Geothermal and Petroleum Systems. And finally, to estimate the geothermal potential of an abandoned petroleum borehole, a numerical-analytical model was developed to simulate the heat and fluid transport process occurring inside the borehole. This model comprise the following processes: (a) the heat transfer between the interface wellbore-formation; (b) the heat transfer in the heat exchanger placed inside the wellbore; (c) the injected fluid flow as heat transport inside the heat exchanger; and (d) the extracted fluid temperature calculation according to the injectedfluid temperature, fluid flow velocity and the heat transfer from the formation-wellbore interface.

Philip van Zyl Venter

North-West University
South Africa

Burnable off-gases generated in engineering process plants are regularly utilised as energy sources. A common use is for steam production, where excess steam is allocated to power generation turbines. Fluctuating off-gas productions may, however, result in power generation losses from turbine trips, due to insufficient steam. Numerous power co-generation investment models exist, which are typically based on cost minimisations or meeting energy demands. These models do not, however, incorporate plant-specific historic steam profiles and typically use average-based patterns for decision making. This paper presents a novel stochastic mixed integer linear programming model that utilises historic steam profiles to determine optimal turbine investments in terms of the net present value. A further advantage is the ability to investigate the investment and procurement of a, typically very expensive, supplementary energy resource to assist during low off-gas flow periods. The proposed model is solved to optimise over 10 years for an engineering factory seeking to invest into an energy recovery plant. Optimal results demonstrate how natural gas in a fluctuating off-gas environment can increase power generation profits and should be invested in, together with a 30MW turbine. Furthermore, an average-based approach yields sub-optimal investments and overestimates the net present value beyond 22%.

Ramaprabhu S

Institute of Technology Madras
Chennai,India

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are the promising candidates for future energy conversion devices due to its high energy density, low working temperature, and zero emissions. However, the high cost and scarcity of Pt electrocatalyst and the durability of PEMFC limit its commercialization. The electrocatalyst loading on the anode and the cathode can be minimized by dispersion Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on the high surface area and conductive carbon support material. The interaction between the support and the Pt NPs are crucial for durability and the performance of the PEMFC. Heteroatom doping to the catalyst support increases the chemical binding between Pt NPs and support materials and provides morenumber of active sites for the reaction. In the present work, nitrogen and sulfur co-doped partially exfoliated carbon nanotubes (NS-PCNTs) has been used catalyst support for Pt NPs. PCNTs consists of few unraveled graphene layers from the outer walls of MWNTs and intact MWNTs inner core with the high surface area, electrical conductivity, and N-S doping sites provides the anchoring sites for Pt NPs deposition and modify the electronic structural properties of the support. Here, the Oxygen Reduction Reaction activity of Pt NPs on NS-PCNTs has been investigated by half-cell and full cell measurements. The electrochemical active surface area (ECSA) and mass activity and durability of Pt/NS-PCNTs are compared to commercial catalyst Pt/C. The studies show that single cell measurements deliver a high power density with Pt/NS-PCNTs cathode catalyst than Pt/C due to the synergistic effect of N-S co-doping on PCNTs.

Roger Ruan

University of Minnesota
USA

Microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP) is an alternative heating method to extract the energy from wastes. Microwave-assisted technology has many advantages comparing with conventional electrical heating methods, including uniform heating at molecular level, process flexibility and equipment portability, lower thermal inertia and faster response, and energy saving. Research has demonstrated that biomass MAP produced syngas with high hydrogen content [1], bio-oil containing high concentrations of phenolics and phenol [2] and with some methoxyl groups removed [3]. However, most of microwave pyrolysis units used in reported research are batch or semi-batch reactors, in which loading of microwave absorbent and biomass (together or separately) is done before pyrolysis and separation and removal of accumulated biochar from absorbents is done after pyrolysis. Lower heating rate and long residence time often influenced the yield of bio-oil and chemical composition. In addition, mixed solid waste residues and microwave absorbent are hard to be separated and collected. In this research, a continuous fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis process and system was designed, fabricated, and tested with sewage sludge. The system is equipped with continuous biomass feeding, mixing of biomass and microwave absorbent, and separated catalytic upgrading. The effect of the sludge pyrolysis temperature (450, 500, 550, and 600℃) on the products yield, distribution and potentially energy recovery were investigated. The physical, chemical, and energetic properties of the raw sewage sludge and bio-oil, char and gas products obtained were analyzed using elemental analyzer, GC-MS, Micro-GC, SEM and ICP-OES. While the maximum bio-oil yield of 41.39 wt. % was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, the optimal pyrolysis temperature for maximum overall energy recovery was 500 °C. The absence of carrier gas in the process may be responsible for the high HHV of gas products. This work could provide technical support for microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis system scale-up and sewage sludge utilization.

S.L. Patel

Mohanlal Sukhadia University
Udaipur, India

This work presents a study on structural and electrical properties of electron-beam evaporated CdTe thin films with the application of post-CdCl2 treatment. The films having thickness 550 nm were grown on glass and ITO substrates followed by CdCl2 treatment and annealing at different temperature and then subjected to X-ray diffractometer and source-meter to investigate the structural and electrical properties, respectively. The films are found to be polycrystalline in nature having cubic phase at low annealing temperature (≤320°C) and mixture of cubic and hexagonal phases at higher temperature (470°C). The improvement in crystallinity is also observed with CdCl2 heat-treatment and maximum grain-growth achieved for films annealed at 320°C. The electrical analysis reveals that the current have linear behavior with voltage and electrical resistivity is increased with post-CdCl2 treatment. The investigated results indicate that the post-CdCl2 treated films annealed at 320°C may be well-suitable for thin film solar cells as an absorber layer.

Xiaohui She

University of Birmingham
Birmingham, UK

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has passed the dangerous threshold of 400 ppm. Decarbonising the energy sector is a matter of urgency. Renewable energy is a good option and many renewable power plants were installed. The share of renewable energy in global energy consumption was 19% in 2015, and it is possible to achieve a 100% renewable energy future by 2050. However, renewable energy is intermittent and there is a mismatch between energy supply and demand. Therefore, electric energy storage is needed to smooth the intermittency and shift the peak load. Among large-scale energy storage technologies, liquid air energy storage (LAES) attracts much attention due to its advantages, such as large energy storage density (60-120 Wh/L), no geographical constraints (ambient pressure storage), fast response (~2 min), etc. Therefore, LAES not only has high potential for storing renewable energy or off-peak electricity, but also can participate in secondary frequency regulation for national grids. The main challenge of the LAES is the round trip efficiency (~50%), which is lower than pumped hydro and compressed air energy storage (~70%). To meet this challenge, one method is effective storage and utilization of cold and heat energy in the LAES, such as latent energy storage with phase change materials (PCM) rather than sensible energy storage with pebbles; with this method, the LAES could achieve a round trip efficiency of ~60%. Another method is the integration of LAES with external cold and heat sources for air liquefaction and power generation, such as the waste heat energy of power plants and waste cold energy of LNG; the LAES can has a high round trip efficiency above 70%, which is comparable with other large-scale energy storage technologies. In short, the future development of the LAES will cover a wide scale from materials to system, including high-performance PCM, high-efficient energy storage heat exchangers, and system integration with external cold/heat sources.

Yishan DING

Forecasting international crude oil is a well-known issue. The hybrid modeling principle tells us that combining different methods could take full advantage of all the merits and leave out the shortcomings. Therefore, hybrid methodology has been widely used in current research. In this study, a novel decompose-ensemble prediction process combining the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and artificial neural network (ANN) is proposed. The overall process can be divided into four steps: model selection via Akaike's information criterion (AIC), data decomposition via EEMD, individual prediction via ANN and ensemble prediction through addition ensemble method. To verify the results, we use the official data of oil price to conduct the predicting. The result confirms that “decompose-ensemble” models are better than the normal hybrid one, in terms of prediction accuracy (both level and directional measurement) and modified Diebold-Mariano test. What's more, back to the decompose-ensemble models, the EEMD-based one outperforms the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) one. At last but not the least, AIC gives us reasonable and convincing statement about determining the value of lag. Generally speaking, this novel forecasting technique is a prominent insight for the price of crude oil.

Zareen T.Khanzada

Istanbul Technical University
Istanbul. Turkey

Landfill leachate grown microalgae serves a dual purpose of reducing environmental pollution by treating leachate (wastewater) and simultaneously producing biomass. Oils extracted from the biomass can be further used for biodiesel production. Quality of biodiesel is effected by the FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) composition of extracted oils. Indigenous microalgae was grown in membrane treated landfill leachate in a batch study to evaluate their potential for waste (nutrient) removal (ammonium-nitrogen NH4+-N, phosphate-phosphorus PO4-P), oil production and FAME analysis at 3 different harvest time of cultivation phase. Results showed that oil content was significantly different but FAME analysis by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry) was same in terms of oil composition. For biodiesel energy generation, biomass of microalgae can be harvested at later stages of stationary phase with batch culturing when using leachate as growth medium, without any adverse effects on biodiesel quality.

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